Germanium (Ge) is a single crystal material that belongs to the family of elemental crystals. As a single crystal, it is composed of a single crystal with a regular arrangement of atoms.
Single crystals like germanium have unique and ordered atomic structures, which give them unique physical properties such as high electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity, and photoconductivity. These properties make germanium useful in various applications, such as in semiconductors, infrared optics, and in the production of alloys.
In particular, germanium has attracted interest due to its excellent properties for use in semiconductors. Germanium has a high electron mobility, which means that it can conduct electrical current at high speeds, making it suitable for use in high-speed transistors and electronic devices. Germanium is also used as a substrate material for the growth of epitaxial layers of other semiconductors, such as silicon and gallium arsenide.
Germanium is also a promising material for use in infrared optics, as it has a high refractive index and is transparent in the mid-infrared range. This makes it suitable for use in lenses, prisms, and other optical components.
|Optical spectral range||1.5 - 22 µm|
|Elastic constants cij (1011 dyn/cm2 or 1010 Pa): |
|Refraction indices: |
NOTE: It should be taken into account that nx=ny=nz=n for optically isotropic material and nx=ny=no and nz=ne for uniaxial crystal.
|NOTE: In those cases when different researchers give distinct values of constants, avaraged data are presented in Tables.|