Single crystal silicon (Si) is a widely used semiconductor material in the electronics industry due to its excellent electrical properties. It is a hard, brittle, and shiny material with a grayish color and a diamond-like crystalline structure.
Single crystal silicon is typically grown using the Czochralski process, where a seed crystal is slowly pulled out of a molten silicon melt, resulting in a cylindrical crystal with a uniform crystal orientation. The crystal is then sliced into wafers, which are used as the starting material for the fabrication of electronic devices, such as microprocessors, memory chips, and solar cells.
Silicon is a semiconductor material, meaning that its electrical conductivity can be controlled by the addition of impurities, or dopants, such as boron or phosphorus. By doping the silicon, it is possible to create p-type and n-type semiconductors, which are the basic building blocks of many electronic devices.
In addition to its use in the electronics industry, single crystal silicon is also used as a substrate material for the growth of epitaxial films of other materials, such as silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), and gallium arsenide (GaAs), for use in various optoelectronic and electronic devices.
|Optical spectral range||1.5 - 22 µm|
|Elastic constants cij (1011 dyn/cm2 or 1010 Pa): |
|Refraction indices: |
NOTE: It should be taken into account that nx=ny=nz=n for optically isotropic material and nx=ny=no and nz=ne for uniaxial crystal.
|NOTE: In those cases when different researchers give distinct values of constants, avaraged data are presented in Tables.|