Lithium niobate (LiNbO3 or LNB) is a single crystal substrate that has a wide range of applications in optics and electronics. It is a birefringent crystal with a high electro-optic coefficient, which makes it useful in the design of electro-optic modulators, optical switches, and frequency doublers. LNB is also used in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, as it has a high acoustic velocity and a low acoustic loss.
LNB has a trigonal crystal structure with lattice parameters of a = 5.148 Å and c = 13.863 Å. It has a high optical damage threshold and a high refractive index of about 2.2 at 1550 nm wavelength. LNB is transparent in the visible to mid-infrared range and can be grown as bulk crystals or thin films using various techniques such as Czochralski method, Bridgman method, and pulsed laser deposition.
|Transparency range, µm||0.4 - 5|
|Lattice parameters (hexagonal), Å||a = 5.148, c = 13.863|
|Refractive indexes :||no = 2.28647, ne = 2.20240 (at 0.633 µm)|
|no = 2.2273, ne = 2.1515 (at 1.1523 µm)|
|Non-linear coefficient at 1.06 µm, pm/V||d22 = 5.6, d31 = -11.6, d33 = 8.6|
|Electroptical coefficient at 0.63 µm, pm/V||r31 = 8.6, r22 = 3.4, r33 = 30.8, r51 = 28|