Single Crystal Substrates: Sapphire

Single Crystal Substrates: Sapphire


Single Crystal Substrates: Sapphire

Sapphire is a single crystal substrate with a hexagonal crystal structure and the chemical formula Al2O3. It has a high melting point of 2040°C, high thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical and chemical stability, which make it a popular substrate material in many applications.

Sapphire is transparent in the visible to near-infrared range and has a high refractive index, which makes it useful for optical applications such as windows, lenses, and prisms. It also has a wide bandgap of 9.7 eV, which makes it useful in high-power electronics and optoelectronics applications.

Sapphire can be grown as bulk crystals using the Kyropoulos method or the Czochralski method, or as thin films using techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy. It is commonly used as a substrate material in the growth of other single crystal materials such as gallium nitride (GaN) for use in high-power electronics and optoelectronics.

Typical specifications:

4" sapphire substrates for Nitride based devices

Material: High purity optical grade monocrystalline Kyropoulos Al2O3
Orientation: C-axis [0001] ± 0.1° or any off-orientation ±0.1° towards M-axis or A-axis
Diameter: 100 ± 0.05 mm
Thickness: 430, 500 or 725 ± 25 µm
TTV: < 20 µm
Bow: < 10 µm
Front Surface: Epi-polished
Fine ground
Optically polished
Flatness: < 10 µm
Surface Roughness (Ra): < 0.2 nm
Orientation Flat: 32.5 mm ± 1.0 mm
Primary Flat Location:
A-axis [11-20] ± 0.5°
M-axis [10-10] ± 0.5°
Secondary Flat (on request): 90° counterclockwise to Primary flat
Package: Single wafer pack or 25 wafers EMPAK Ultrapack cassette

Silicon-on-Sapphire wafers:

Substrate diameter, mm 50.8 ± 0.1, 76 ± 0.5 or 100 ± 0.5
Substrate orientation (-1012) R ± 0.5°
Substrate thickness, µm 330-430 ± 25, 450 ± 25 or 460 ± 25
Silicon layer orientation (100)
Back side Ground
1. Gages applications
Thickness of heteroepitaxial layer, µm 0.5 - 5.0 ± 8%
Conductivity type of heteroepitaxial layer P (Boron)
Resistivity of Silicon film, Ohm 10 - 30 ± 8%
2. IC's application
Thickness of heteroepitaxial layer, µm 0.1 - 1.0 ± 8%
Conductivity type of heteroepitaxial layer n (Phosphorous), p (Boron), i (Intrinsic - undoped)
Specific resistivity, Ohm x cm 1 - 200

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