Ti-Sapphire, or titanium-doped sapphire, is a laser active crystal that is widely used in scientific research and medical applications. Ti-Sapphire has a hexagonal crystal structure and is doped with titanium ions, which allow it to amplify light through stimulated emission.
One of the main advantages of Ti-Sapphire as a laser active crystal is its broad and tunable emission spectrum, which can be adjusted by changing the pump wavelength or by using different cavity configurations. Ti-Sapphire lasers can emit light over a wide range of wavelengths, from 650 nanometers in the red part of the visible spectrum to 1100 nanometers in the near-infrared region.
Ti-Sapphire lasers are typically pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser or a frequency-doubled Ti-Sapphire laser itself. The pump wavelength is usually around 532 nanometers, which excites the titanium ions in the crystal and causes them to emit light at a longer wavelength.
Ti-Sapphire lasers are used in a wide range of applications, such as spectroscopy, microscopy, and biophotonics. They are particularly useful in multiphoton microscopy, a technique that allows imaging of biological tissues at high resolution and depth.
|Lattice parameters, Å||a = 4.748; c = 12.957|
|Refractive indexes||np = 1.759; nm = 1.767|
|Thermal conductivity at 25°C, W x cm-1 x °K-1||-|
|perpendicular to c-axis||0.35|
|parallel to c-axis||0.33|
|Specific heat at 18°C, J x kg-1 x °K-1||761|
|Thermal expansion coefficient (20 - 100°C)||-|
|perpendicular to c-axis||4.78 x 10-6 x °K-1|
|parallel to c-axis||5.31 x 10-6 x °K-1|
Rods with round cross-sections and slabs are manufactured:
|Tuning range, nm||680 - 1100|
|Pumping range, nm||450 - 532|
|Ti dopant concentration, at.%||0.02 ÷ 0.35|
|Absorption coefficient at 510 nm, cm-1||0.5 ÷ 2.5|
|Orientation||90° to c axis|
|Geometry||flat-flat / Brewster|
|Orientation tolerance||< 5°|
|Broadband AR coatings, %||< 0.2|
|Diameter, mm||(3 ÷ 40) ± 0.1|
|Length, mm||(10 ÷ 140) ± 0.5|