Ti-Sapphire, or titanium-doped sapphire, is a laser active crystal that is widely used in scientific research and medical applications. Ti-Sapphire has a hexagonal crystal structure and is doped with titanium ions, which allow it to amplify light through stimulated emission.

One of the main advantages of Ti-Sapphire as a laser active crystal is its broad and tunable emission spectrum, which can be adjusted by changing the pump wavelength or by using different cavity configurations. Ti-Sapphire lasers can emit light over a wide range of wavelengths, from 650 nanometers in the red part of the visible spectrum to 1100 nanometers in the near-infrared region.

Ti-Sapphire lasers are typically pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser or a frequency-doubled Ti-Sapphire laser itself. The pump wavelength is usually around 532 nanometers, which excites the titanium ions in the crystal and causes them to emit light at a longer wavelength.

Ti-Sapphire lasers are used in a wide range of applications, such as spectroscopy, microscopy, and biophotonics. They are particularly useful in multiphoton microscopy, a technique that allows imaging of biological tissues at high resolution and depth.

Chemical formula Ti3+:Al2O3
Crystal structure hexagonal
Lattice parameters, Å a = 4.748; c = 12.957
Refractive indexes np = 1.759; nm = 1.767
Birefrigence 0.0082
Density, g/cm3 3.98
Mohs hardness 9
Thermal conductivity at 25°C, W x cm-1 x °K-1 -
perpendicular to c-axis 0.35
parallel to c-axis 0.33
Specific heat at 18°C, J x kg-1 x °K-1 761
Thermal expansion coefficient (20 - 100°C) -
perpendicular to c-axis 4.78 x 10-6 x °K-1
parallel to c-axis 5.31 x 10-6 x °K-1
Syngony triangular
Axial characteristic uniaxial

Rods with round cross-sections and slabs are manufactured:

Tuning range, nm 680 - 1100
Pumping range, nm 450 - 532
Ti dopant concentration, at.% 0.02 ÷ 0.35
Absorption coefficient at 510 nm, cm-1 0.5 ÷ 2.5
FOM >200
Orientation 90° to c axis
Geometry flat-flat / Brewster
Endsunparallelity 10"
Flatness 0.2
Orientation tolerance < 5°
Broadband AR coatings, % < 0.2
Diameter, mm (3 ÷ 40) ± 0.1
Length, mm (10 ÷ 140) ± 0.5

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