V:YAG (Vanadium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) is another Q-switching crystal used in solid-state lasers. Like Cr:YAG, it operates by absorbing energy from the pump source and then releasing that energy in the form of a laser pulse when the Q-switch is opened.

The vanadium dopant in V:YAG creates a saturable absorber effect similar to that of Cr:YAG. The vanadium ions in the crystal lattice absorb light at a specific wavelength, and as the intensity of the laser light increases, the absorption of the vanadium ions decreases. This allows the laser pulse to build up in intensity until the Q-switch is opened, at which point the pulse is released.

One advantage of V:YAG over Cr:YAG is that it has a narrower absorption spectrum, which means that it can be more easily tuned to specific laser wavelengths. This makes it useful for applications such as laser spectroscopy and medical laser treatments, where precise control over the laser wavelength is important.

V:YAG also has a high damage threshold and good thermal conductivity, which make it suitable for high-power laser applications. It is often used in conjunction with other laser materials, such as Nd:YAG, to create more powerful and efficient laser systems.

Wavelength, nm
Initial transmittance, %
5 - 95
Initial absorption coefficient, cm-1
5 - 6
Dopant level, cm-3
Relax. time of the exited state (4A2 !’ 4T1(4F) absorption), ns
Relax. time of the exited state (3T2 !’ 3A2 absorption), ns
Ground-state absorption cross-section, cm2
7.3 x 10-18@1.32 µm
3.0 x 10-18@1.06 µm
Excited-state absorption cross-section, cm2
Optical length, mm
0.5 - 5
Diameter, mm
5 - 7

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