YVO4, or yttrium orthovanadate, is a laser active crystal that is commonly used in solid-state lasers. YVO4 has a tetragonal crystal structure that allows it to amplify light through the process of stimulated emission.
One of the main advantages of YVO4 as a laser active crystal is its high gain, which means that it can amplify light efficiently and generate high laser powers. YVO4 also has a relatively low thermal conductivity, which allows it to build up a population inversion more quickly than other laser active crystals.
Nd:YVO4, or neodymium-doped YVO4, is a popular type of YVO4 laser. Nd:YVO4 lasers operate at a wavelength of 1064 nanometers, which is similar to Nd:YAG lasers. However, Nd:YVO4 lasers have a higher gain coefficient and a lower thermal conductivity compared to Nd:YAG lasers, which makes them more efficient and suitable for high-power and high-repetition rate applications.
YVO4 crystals can also be doped with other ions, such as erbium or holmium, to generate laser emissions at different wavelengths. Er:YVO4, or erbium-doped YVO4, lasers operate at a wavelength of 1645 nanometers and are used in medical applications for tissue ablation and cutting. Ho:YVO4, or holmium-doped YVO4, lasers operate at a wavelength of 2097 nanometers and are used in scientific research and industrial applications.
MAIN PROPERTIES OF Nd3+:YVO4:
|Lattice constant, Å||a = b = 7.12, c= 6.29|
|Mohs hardness||8 - 9|
|Melting point, °C||2105|
|at 1064 nm||no =1.9573; ne =2.1652|
|at 808 nm||no =1.9721; ne =2.1858|
|at 532 nm||no =2.0210; ne =2.2560|
|Thermal expansion coefficient||αc = 11.37 x 10-6 x °K-1|
|Thermal conductivity at 25°C, W x m-1 x °K-1, perpendicular to c-axis||5.10|
|Lasing Wavelengths, nm||914, 1064, 1342|
Specifications for laser rods/slabs:
|Dopant concentration, at. %||0.1 - 4.0||0.2 - 5.0||0.5 - 5.0||0.1 - 2.0||0.1 - 4|
|Configuration of rod´s cross section||round or square||round or square||round or square||round or square||round or square|
|Cross section, mm||1.5 - 25.0||from 2x2 to 5x10||from 2x2 to 5x10||from 2x2 to 5x10||from 2x2 to 5x10|
|Length, mm||0.5 - 30.0||0.5 - 20||0.5 - 20||undoped part - 1-5 |
doped part - 1 - 10
|0.5 - 20|
|Diameter tolerance, mm||± 0.1||± 0.1||± 0.1||± 0.1||± 0.1|
|Length tolerance, mm||± 0.5||± 0.1||± 0.1||± 0.1||± 0.1|
|Non-parallelism of end faces, arc sec||10||10||10||10||10|
|Surface finish, Scratch-Dig||10 - 5||10 - 5||10 - 5||10 - 5||10 - 5|