YVO4, or yttrium orthovanadate, is a laser active crystal that is commonly used in solid-state lasers. YVO4 has a tetragonal crystal structure that allows it to amplify light through the process of stimulated emission.

One of the main advantages of YVO4 as a laser active crystal is its high gain, which means that it can amplify light efficiently and generate high laser powers. YVO4 also has a relatively low thermal conductivity, which allows it to build up a population inversion more quickly than other laser active crystals.

Nd:YVO4, or neodymium-doped YVO4, is a popular type of YVO4 laser. Nd:YVO4 lasers operate at a wavelength of 1064 nanometers, which is similar to Nd:YAG lasers. However, Nd:YVO4 lasers have a higher gain coefficient and a lower thermal conductivity compared to Nd:YAG lasers, which makes them more efficient and suitable for high-power and high-repetition rate applications.

YVO4 crystals can also be doped with other ions, such as erbium or holmium, to generate laser emissions at different wavelengths. Er:YVO4, or erbium-doped YVO4, lasers operate at a wavelength of 1645 nanometers and are used in medical applications for tissue ablation and cutting. Ho:YVO4, or holmium-doped YVO4, lasers operate at a wavelength of 2097 nanometers and are used in scientific research and industrial applications.


Syngony cubic
Spatial group Fd3m
Lattice constant, Å a = b = 7.12, c= 6.29
Density, g/cm3 4.22
Mohs hardness 8 - 9
Melting point, °C 2105
Crystal structure tetragonal
Refractive indices:  
  at 1064 nm no =1.9573; ne =2.1652
  at 808 nm no =1.9721; ne =2.1858
  at 532 nm no =2.0210; ne =2.2560
Thermal expansion coefficient αc = 11.37 x 10-6 x °K-1
Thermal conductivity at 25°C, W x m-1 x °K-1, perpendicular to c-axis 5.10
Lasing Wavelengths, nm 914, 1064, 1342

Specifications for laser rods/slabs:

Material: YVO4:Nd3+ YVO4:Er3+ YVO4:Yb3+ YVO4 /Nd3+:YVO4 Nd3+:GdVO4
Dopant concentration, at. % 0.1 - 4.0 0.2 - 5.0 0.5 - 5.0 0.1 - 2.0 0.1 - 4
Configuration of rod´s cross section round or square round or square round or square round or square round or square
Cross section, mm 1.5 - 25.0 from 2x2 to 5x10 from 2x2 to 5x10 from 2x2 to 5x10 from 2x2 to 5x10
Length, mm 0.5 - 30.0 0.5 - 20 0.5 - 20 undoped part - 1-5
doped part - 1 - 10
0.5 - 20
Diameter tolerance, mm ± 0.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.1
Length tolerance, mm ± 0.5 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.1
Non-parallelism of end faces, arc sec 10 10 10 10 10
Surface finish, Scratch-Dig 10 - 5 10 - 5 10 - 5 10 - 5 10 - 5
Flatness λ/10 λ/10 λ/10 λ/10 λ/10

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