Germanium (Ge) Wafers

Germanium (Ge) Wafers and Substrates


Germanium (Ge) Wafers

Germanium (Ge) wafers and substrates are a type of semiconductor material used in the production of electronic and optoelectronic devices such as transistors, diodes, and solar cells. Germanium is a Group IV element and has a crystalline structure similar to silicon, but with some important differences in its physical properties.

Germanium wafers and substrates are typically produced using the Czochralski (CZ) method, where a seed crystal is dipped into a melt of molten germanium and slowly pulled out while rotating. The molten germanium solidifies and forms a single crystal as the seed crystal is pulled out.

Once the germanium crystal is grown, it is sliced into thin wafers and polished to a high degree of flatness and smoothness. The resulting germanium wafers and substrates can then be used as a platform for the growth of additional semiconductor layers, which can be doped with impurities to create p-type and n-type regions for device fabrication.

Germanium wafers and substrates have several advantages over other semiconductor materials such as silicon. Germanium has a higher electron mobility than silicon, which means that it can operate at higher frequencies and with lower power consumption. Additionally, germanium has a narrower bandgap than silicon, which makes it suitable for applications such as near-infrared photodetectors and solar cells.

Overall, germanium wafers and substrates are an important semiconductor material for a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic applications, particularly those requiring high-speed performance in the near-infrared wavelength range.

Ge wafers are offer in sizes 2 inch and 4 inch and are used in microelectrinics, optoelectrincs, optics. Ge wafers are used to manufacture solar cells for space and terrestrial applications, optical lens, light emitting diodes (LED) and photodetectors.

Item Unit Semiconduct Specifications
Crystal Growth Method   CZ
Conduct Type   (n-type) (p-type)
Dopant   As,Sb Ga
Diameter inch 2",3",4" and 6"
Wafer Orientation   (100)±0.5°
Laser Marking /cm3 Upon request
Thickness μm (175-500)±25
Resistivity (at RT) 0.005-30 0.005-0.04
Etch Pit Density (EPD) /cm2 - 0
TTV μm ≤15 ≤15
Warp μm ≤25  ≤25
Backside Ra μm <0.1 <0.1
Surface Side1/Side2 E/E, P/E, P/D
Epi-ready   Yes
Package   Cassette or single
wafer container

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