Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) wafer is a thin, flat slice of crystalline lithium niobate material that is used in a variety of applications, such as telecommunications, optical waveguides, and microelectronics. Lithium niobate is a ferroelectric material, which means it has a spontaneous polarization that can be controlled by applying an external electric field. This property makes it useful in various electronic and optical devices.
Lithium niobate wafers are typically made by a process called crystal growth, where a seed crystal is immersed in a melt of lithium niobate. As the melt cools, the lithium niobate crystallizes on the seed crystal, forming a larger single crystal. The resulting crystal is then sliced into wafers of the desired thickness and polished to a high degree of flatness and smoothness.
Lithium niobate wafers are highly prized for their excellent optical and electrical properties, such as high refractive index, low optical loss, and high electro-optic coefficients. These properties make them useful in a wide range of applications, including optical modulators, frequency converters, and acousto-optic devices.